HARVARD UNIVERSITY

Library of the

Museum of

Comparative Zoology

H, ^.,o«,. .a^

The CANADIAN FIELD-NATURALIST

UNiV£

Published by THE OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB, Ottawa, Canada

•^

m"''yM-f^

Volume 106, Number 1

January-March 1992

The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club

FOUNDED IN 1879

Patron

His Excellency The Right Honourable Ramon John Hnatyshyn, P.C, C.C, C.M.M., Q.C.,

Governor General of Canada

The objectives of this Club shall be to promote the appreciation, preservation and conservation of Canada's natural heritage; to encourage investigation and publish the results of research in all fields of natural history and to diffuse infor- mation on these fields as widely as possible; to support and cooperate with organizations engaged in preserving, maintain- ing or restoring environments of high quality for living things.

Honorary Members

Edward L. Bousfield Irwin M. Brodo William J. Cody William G. Dore R. Yorke Edwards Anthony J. Erskine

Clarence Frankton Claude E. Carton W. Earl Godfrey C. Stuart Houston Louise de K. Lawrence Thomas H. Manning

Don E. McAllister Stewart D. MacDonald Verna Ross McGiffin Hue N. MacKenzie Eugene G. Munroe Robert W. Nero

1992 Council

President: Frank Pope

Vice-President: Michael Murphy

Recording Secretary: Connie Clark

Corresponding Secretary: Eileen Evans

Treasurer: Gillian Marston

Ronald E. Bedford Barry Bendell Fenja Brodo Steve Blight Lee Caimie Martha Camfield William J. Cody Francis R. Cook Don Cuddy

Hugh M. Raup Loris S. Russell Douglas B.O. Savile Pauline Snure Mary E. Stuart Sheila Thomson

Ellaine Dickson Enid Frankton Colin Gaskell Bill Gummer Jeff Harrison Linda Maltby Jack Romanow Doreen Watler Ken Young

Those wishing to communicate with the Club should address correspondence to: The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, Box 3264, Postal Station C, Ottawa, Canada KlY 4J5. For information on Club activities telephone (613) 722-3050.

The Canadian Field-Naturalist

The Canadian Field-Naturalist is published quarterly by The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. Opinions and ideas expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect those of The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club or any other agency.

Editor: Francis R. Cook, R.R. 3, North Augusta, Ontario KOG IRO; 613-269-3211

Assistant to Editor: P.J. Narraway; Copy Editor: Wanda J. Cook

Business Manager: William J. Cody, Box 3264, Postal Station C, Ottawa, Ontario KlY 4J5 (613) 996-1665

Book Review Editor: Dr. J. Wilson Eedy, R.R. 1, Moffat, Ontario LOP IJO

Coordinator, The Biological Flora of Canada: Dr. George H. La Roi, Department of Botany, University of Alberta,

Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9 Associate Editors:

CD. Bird Anthony J. Erskine William O. Pruitt, Jr.

Robert R. Campbell W. Earl Godfrey Stephen M. Smith

Brian W. Coad Diana Laubitz

Chairman, Publications Committee: Ronald E. Bedford

All manuscripts intended for publication should be addressed to the Editor at home address.

Subscriptions and Membership

Subscription rates for individuals are $23 per calendar year. Libraries and other institutions may subscribe at the rate of $38 per year (volume). The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club annual membership fee of $23 includes a subscription to The Canadian Field-Naturalist. All foreign subscribers (including USA) must add an additional $4.00 to cover postage. Subscriptions, applications for membership, notices of changes of address, and undeliverable copies should be mailed to: The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, Box 3264, Postal Station C, Ottawa, Canada K1Y4J5.

Second Class Mail Registration No. 0527 - Return Postage Guaranteed. Date of this issue: January-March 1992 (December 1992).

Back Numbers and Index

Most back numbers of this journal and its predecessors. Transactions of The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, 1879-1886, and The Ottawa Naturalist, 1887-1919, and Transactions of The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club and The Ottawa Naturalist - Index compiled by John M. Gillett, may be purchased from the Business Manager.

Cover: Left: Portion of Hog's Back prairie and savanna, a remnant of the Rice Lake Plains near Alderville, Ontario. Right: Wild Lupine, Lupinus perennis, a rare species in Ontario, once abundant on the Rice Lake Plains, this plant part of a relict population near Harwood, Ontario. Photos by P. M. Catling. See article by P. M. Catling, V. R. Catling and S. M. McKay-Kuja on the Extent and Floristic Composition of the Rice Lake Plains, pages

73-86.

THE CANADIAN

FIELD-NATURALIST

Volume 106 1992

MCZ LIBRARY^

JAN 2 5 1993

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

THE OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB

Ottawa

Canada

The Canadian Field-Naturalist

Volume 106, Number 1

January-March 1992

Rare and Endangered Fishes and Marine Mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and Marine Mammal Subcommittee Status Reports VIII.

R. R. Campbell

Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 200 Kent Street, Ottawa, Ontario KIA 0E6

Present address: Administrator, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario K1A0H3

Campbell R. R. Editor. 1992. Rare and endangered fish and marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and Marine Mammal Subcommittee Status Reports VIII. Canadian Field-Naturalist 106(1): 1-6.

Eight status reports representing those species of fish and marine mammals which were assigned status at the 1991 COSEWIC General Meeting have been prepared for publication. Committee and Subcommittee (Fish and Marine Mammal) activities are briefly discussed. Updated lists of status assignments for fish and marine mammals and for species which are currently under consideration or yet to be considered are presented in tabular form.

Huit rapports sur le statut des poissons et des mammiferes marins auxquells un statut a ete attribue a la reunion du CSEMDC en 1991 ont ete prepares pour publication. Les activites du Comite et du sous-comite (poissons et mammiferes marins) sont brievement discutees. Les listes a jour des especes de poissons et de mammiferes marins sur lesquelles deja on a statees, ainsi que les sont presentees sous forme tabulaire.

Key Words: Rare and Endangered species, fish, marine mammals, COSEWIC.

As indicated in previous submissions (Campbell 1984-1991), the intent of the Subcommittee on Fish and Marine Mammals is to publish the status reports (on those species of fish and marine mammals) which the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) has reviewed, ap- proved, and used as a basis for the assignment of status to species in jeopardy in Canada. The group of eight reports presented herein represent the fish and marine mammal component of those species assigned status in 1991. It is hoped that we will have the continuing support of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans to offer, in succeeding vol- umes, those reports reviewed in future years (Table 1 presents those species assigned status to April 1991).

Progress

COSEWIC has undertaken to make public, sup- porting information on each species classified {see Cook and Muir 1984). The Fish and Marine Mammal Subcommittee has been able to use this journal as one step in achieving the goal [see Canadian Field-Naturalist 98(1): 63-133; 99(3): 404-450; 102(1): 81-176, 102(2): 270-398; 103(2): 147-220; 104(1): 1-138; 105(2): 151-293] and the

encouraging response to these publications has enabled us to continue.

Contributions to the Committee of $10 000 made by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans and Environment Canada in 1990 were once again matched by World Wildlife Fund Canada. These per- mitted the contracting of several (12) new reports in 1990. Although there are a considerable number of reports in preparation or under review, the number of species still awaiting consideration has been reduced to three (Table 3) and contracts are being prepared for the production of reports on these.

There are currently 41 status reports on fish species and 15 on marine mammal species under review or in preparation (Table 2), several will be assigned status in 1992. In addition to soliciting fur- ther status reports on species of concern, the Subcommittee continues to obtain updated reports on the status of selected species as new information becomes available.

As a result of the addition of the Harbour Por- poise to the threatened list, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans has initiated efforts for the conservation of the species. A recovery team has been established and a recovery plan for the stocks in, at least, the Canadian portion of the range should soon be available. Team membership includes rep-

The Canadian Field-Naturalist

Vol. 105

Table I. Fish and Marine Mammal Species with Assigned COSEWIC Status to April 1991.

Species

Scientific Name

Status

Date Assigned

Fish

Lake Sturgeon

A cipenser fulescens

ransdr^

April 1986

Bloater

Coregonus hoyi

RANSDR

April 1988

Blueback Herring

Alosa aestivalis

ransdr

April 1980

Hornyhead Chub

Nocomis biguttatus

RANSDR

April 1988

River Chub

Nocomis micropogon

RANSDR

April 1988

Redfin Shiner

Lythrurus umbratilis

RANSDR

April 1988

Leopard Dace

Rhinichthys falcatus

RANSDR

April 1990

Golden Redhorse

Moxostoma erythrurum

RANSDR

April 1989

Mountain Sucker

Castostomus platyrhynchus

RANSDR

April 1991

Least Darter

Etheostoma microperca

RANSDR

April 1989

River Darter

Percina shumardi

RANSDR

April 1989

Green Sunfish

Lepomis cyanellus

RANSDR

April 1987

Longear Sunfish

Lepomis megalotis

RANSDR

April 1987

Spoonhead Sculpin

Coitus ricei

RANSDR

April 1989

Brook Silverside

Labidesthes sicculus

RANSDR

April 1989

Y-Prickleback

Allolumpenus hypochromus

RANSDR

April 1991

Darktail Lamprey

Lethenteron alaskense

RAISIFSD''

April 1990

Bering Cisco

Coregonus laurettae

RAISIFSD

April 1991

Pixie Poacher*

Occella impi

RAISIFSD

April 1991

Vancouver Lamprey'^

Lampetra macrostoma

Vulnerable""

April 1986

Chestnut Lamprey

Ichthyomyzon castaneus

Vulnerable

April 1991

Northern Brook Lamprey

Ichthyomyzon fossor

Vulnerable

April 1991

Green Sturgeon

Acipenser medirostris

Vulnerable

April 1987

Shortnose Sturgeon

Acipenser brevirostrum

Vulnerable

April 1980

White Sturgeon

Acipenser transmontanus

Vulnerable

April 1990

Spotted Gar

Lepisosteus ocultus

Vulnerable

April 1983

Kiyi

Coregonus kiyi

Vulnerable

April 1987

Squanga Whitefish'^

Coregonus sp.

Vulnerable

April 1988

Pacific Sardine

Sardinops sagax

Vulnerable

April 1987

Silver Chub

Macrhybopsis storeriana

Vulnerable

April 1985

Umatilla Dace

Rhinichthys umatilla

Vulnerable

April 1988

Bigmouth Shiner

Notropis dorsalis

Vulnerable

April 1985

Pugnose Shiner

Notropis anogenus

Vulnerable

April 1985

Silver Shiner

Notropis photogenis

Vulnerable

April 1983"=

Pugnose Minnow

Opsepocodus emiliae

Vulnerable

April 1985

Redside Dace

Clinostomus elongatus

Vulnerable

April 1987

Speckled Dace

Rhinichthys oscuhis

Vulnerable

April 1980f

Central Stoneroller

Campostoma anomalum

Vulnerable

April 1985

Banded Killifish (Newfoundland)

Fundulus diaphanus

Vulnerable

April 1989

Blackstripe Topminnow

Funduhis notatus

Vulnerable

April 1985

Bigmouth Buffalo

Ictiobus cyprinellus

Vulnerable

April 1989

Black Buffalo

Ictiobus niger

Vulnerable

April 1989

Spotted Sucker

Minytrema melanops

Vulnerable

April 1983

River Redhorse

Moxostoma carinatum

Vulnerable

April 1983'=

Greenside Darter

Etheostoma blennioides

Vulnerable

April 1990

Brindled Madtom

Notorus miurus

Vulnerable

April 1985

Orangespotted Sunfish

Lepomis humihis

Vulnerable

April 1989

Redbreast Sunfish

Lepomis auritus

Vulnerable

April 1989

Fourhorn Sculpin (Arctic Islands)

Myoxocephalus quadricornis

Vulnerable

April 1989

Giant Stickleback"^

Gasterosteus sp.

Vulnerable

April 1980

Unarmoured Stickleback*^

Gasterosteus sp.

Vulnerable

April 1983

Blackline Prickleback

Acantholumpenus mackayi

Vulnerable

April 1989

Bering Wolffish

Anarichus orientalis

Vulnerable

April 1989

Lake Simcoe Whitefish''

Coregonus clupeaformis spp.

Threatened

April 1987

Blackfin Cisco

Coregonus nigripinnis

Threatened

April 1988

Shortnose Cisco

Coregonus reighardi

Threatened

April 1987

Shortjaw Cisco

Coregonus zenithicus

Threatened

April 1987

Deepwater Sculpin

(Great Lakes Watershed)

Myoxocephalus thompsoni

Threatened

April 1987

Black Redhorse

Moxostoma dusquesnei

Threatened

April 1988

Continued

1991

Campbell: Rare and Endangered Fishes and Marine Mammals

Table 1. Concluded

Species

Scientific Name

Status

Date Assigned

Copper Redhorse"^ Margined Madtom Enos Lake Stickleback'^ Shortliead Sculpin Aurora Trouf^ Acadian Whitefish'^ Salish Sucker Gravel Club Paddlefish Deepwater Cisco Longjaw Cisco Banff Longnose Dace'' Blue Walleye

Moxostoma hubbsi Threatened April 1987

Noturus insignis Threatened April 1989

Gasterosteus sp. Threatened April 1988

Cottus confusus Threatened November 1983

Salvelinus fontinalis timagamiensis Endangered April 1987

Coregonus huntsmani Endangered April 1983

Catostmus sp. Endangered April 1986

Erimystax x-punctata Extirpated April 1987^

Polyodon spathula Extirpated April 1987

Coregonus johannae Extinct April 1988

Coregonus alpenae Extinct April 1988

Rhinichthys cataractae smithi Extinct April 1987

Stizostedion vitreum glaucum Extinct April 1985

Marine Molluscs

Northern Abalone

Marine Mammals

California Sea Lion Stellar Sea Lion Atlantic Walrus

Eastern Arctic

Northwest Atlantic Grey Whale

Northeast Pacific

Northwest Atlantic Hooded Seal Northern Elephant Seal Ringed Seal Risso's Dolphin Northern Right Whale Pacific White-sided Dolphin Dall's Porpoise Narwhal

Blainville's Beaked Whale Cuvier's Beaked Whale Hubb's Beaked Whale Stejneger's Beaked Whale True's Beaked Whale False Killer Whale Atlantic White-sided Dolphin Common Dolphin Beluga

Beaufort Sea

St. Lawrence River

Eastern Hudson Bay

Ungava Bay

S.E. Baffin Island Sowerby's Beaked Whale Blue Whale Fin Whale Sea Otter Harbour Porpoise

Northwest Pacific

Northeast Atlantic Humpback Whale

Northeast Pacific

Northwest Atlantic Bowhead Whale Right Whale Sea Mink

Haliotis kamtschatkana

Zalophus californianus Eumetopias jubatus Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus

Eschrichtius robustus

Cystophora cristata Mirounga angustirostris Phoca hispida Grampus griseus Lissodelphis borealis Lagenorhynchus obliquidens Phocoenoides dalli Monodon monoceros Mesoplodon densirostris Ziphius cavirostris Mesoplodon carlhubbsi Mesoplodon stejnegeri Mesoplodon mirus Pseudorca crassidens Lagenorhynchus acutus Delphinus delphis Delphinapterus leucas

Mesoplodon bidens Balaenoptera musculus Balaenoptera physalus Enydra lutris Phocoena phocoena

Megaptera novaeangliae

Balaena mysticetus Eubalaena glacialis Mustela macrodon

N/A*-

RANSDR RANSDR

RANSDR

Extirpated

RANSDR Extirpated RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR RANSDR

RANSDR

Endangered

Threatened

Endangered

Endangered

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Endangered

RAISIFSD

Threatened

Threatened

Vulnerable

Endangered

Endangered

Extinct

April 1988

April 1987 April 1987

April 1987 April 1987

April 1987 April 1987 April 1986 April 1986 April 1989 April 1990 April 1990 April 1990 April 1989 April 1986= April 1989 April 1990 April 1989 April 1989 April 1989 April 1990 April 1991 April 1991

April 1986 April 1983 April 1988 April 1988 April 1990 April 1989 April 1983 April 1987* May 1978'

April 1991 April 1990

April 1982 April 1985 April 1980' April 1980'' April 1985

The Canadian Field-Naturalist

Vol. 105

'' RANSDR Use of NIAC (Not in Any Category) dropped in 1988 and subsequently converted. RANSDR is not a cate- gory - Report Accepted No Status Designation Required.

^ RAISIFSD the use of a new list "Report Accepted Insufficient Scientific Information For Status Designation" was approved at the 1990 General Meeting.

'^ Endemic to Canada

'^ Vulnerable "Rare" category changed to "Vulnerable" in 1988. Dates Assigned of 1988 or earlier indicate date of origi- nal Rare status assignment. These were subsequently converted to Vulnerable at the 1990 General Meeting based on the advice of the Fish and Marine Mammal Subcommittee.

'^ Updated April 1987 no status change.

^ Updated April 1984 no status change.

s Updated April 1987 previous status of "Endangered" assigned April 1985.

^ N/A Status Not Assigned. COSEWIC has no mandate for invertebrates. Report accepted and recommended RANSDR Status agreed to, but not assigned.

' Updated April 1986 no status change.

^ Updated April 1985 North Atlantic stock downlisted to 'Vulnerable' _

^ Updated April 1985 and April 1990 no status change.

Table 2. Fish and Marine Mammal Species for which Status Reports are in preparation, or under review, April 1991

Species

Scientific Name

Proposed Status

Fish

Atlantic Sturgeon Lake Sturgeon" Red (Arctic) Chari

Atlantic Salmon Bull Trout Spring Cisco* Lake Herring Lake Whitefish Mira Whitefish Opeongo Whitefish* Round Whitefish Pygmy Whitefish Pygmy Smelt Chain Pickerel Grass Pickerel Redfin Pickerel Blackchin Shiner Bluntnose Minnow Chiselmouth Cutlips Minnow Eastern Silvery Minnow Ghost Shiner Roseyface Shiner Striped Shiner Weed Shiner Western Silvery Minnow Lake Chubsucker Jasper Longnose Sucker* Warmouth Striped Bass Channel Darter Eastern Sand Darter Tessellated Darter Flathead Catfish Northern Madtom

Acipenser oxyrhynchus Acipenser fulvescens Salvelinus alpinus spp.

Salmo salar

Salvelinus confluentus

Coregonus sp.

Coregonus artedi

Coregonus clupeaformis

Coregonus sp.

Coregonus sp.

Prosopium cylindraceum

Pros opium coulter i

Osmerus spectrum

Esox niger

Esox americanus vermiculatus

Esox americanus americanus

Notropis heterodon

Pimphales notatus

Acrocheilus alutaceus

Exoglossum maxillingua

Hybognathus nuchalis regius

Notropis buchanani

Notropis rubellus

Luxilus chrysocephalus

Notropis texanus

Hybognathus argyritis

Erimyzon sucetta

Castostomus castostomus lacustris

Lepomis gulosus

Morone saxatilis

Percina copelandi

Ammocrypta pellucida

Etheostoma olmstedi

Pylodictis olivaris

Noturus stigmosus

? (Landlocked populations: Quebec, New Brunswick, Newfoundland ?

Vulnerable

7

Endangered Lakes Erie, Ontario Threatened Lakes Erie, Ontario Vulnerable Threatened

Vulnerable Lakes Huron, Ontario ?

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable (Manitoba)

Vulnerable (British Columbia)

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable (Manitoba)

? (Alberta)

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Endangered

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

7

Vulnerable

Continued

1991

Campbell: Rare and Endangered Fishes and Marine Mammals

Table 2. Concluded

Species

Scientific Name

Proposed Status

Texada Stickleback*

Cultus Pygmy Coastrange Sculpin*

Mottled Sculpin

Shorthead Sculpin"

Spinynose Sculpin

Bluefin Tuna

Marine Mammals

White-beaked Dolphin

Baird's Beaked Whale

Beluga Whale (W. Hudson Bay)

Northern Bottlenose Whale

Bowhead Whale°

Killer Whale

Long-finned Pilot Whale

Sperm Whale

Striped Dolphin

Bottlenose Dolphin

Short-finned Pilot Whale

Pygmy Sperm Whale

Sei Whale

Minke Whale

Dwarf Sperm Whale

Gasterosteus sp

Vulnerable

Cottus aleudcus

Threatened (British

Cottus bairdi

Vulnerable (British i

Cottus confiisus

Vulnerable

Asemichthys taylori

Vulnerable

Thunnus thynmis

?

Lagenorhynchus albirosths

?

Berardius bairdii

?

Delphinapterus leucas

Hyperoodon ampullatus

7

Balaena mysticetus

Endangered

Orcinus orca

9

Globicephela malaena

7

Physeter catadon

7

Stenella coeruleoalba

7

Tursiops tnincatiis

7

Globicephala macrorhynchiis

Vulnerable

Kogia breviceps

Vulnerable

Balaenoptera borealis

7

Balaenoptera acutorostrata

7

Kogia simus

Vulnerable

*Endemic to Canada "Updated Status Report ^Not of immediate concern

Table 3. Fish and Marine Mammal Species of Interest to COSEWIC April 1991 (Not listed by priority)

Species

Scientific Name

Proposed Status

Fish

Pygmy Longfin Smelt*

Nooky Dace

Liard Hotspring Lake Chub*

Spirinichus thaleichthys

Rhinichthys cataractae spp. Couesius plumbeus spp.

Vulnerable (landlocked population in Harrington Lake, British Columbia) Vulnerable (British Columbia) Vulnerable (British Columbia's Liard Hotspring)

*Endemic to Canada

resentation from the United States and there is no doubt that uUimately recovery plans should be inter- national in character.

Acknowledgments

The Subcommittee wishes to extend their thanks to the various authors who have so generously con- tributed their time and talent in support of COSEWIC, and I wish also to thank the members of the Subcommittee for their unstinting efforts in reviewing the reports and for their helpful com- ments.

The Subcommittee is grateful to World Wildlife Fund Canada, the Canadian Wildlife Service, and the Canadian Museum of Nature (formerly the National Museum of Natural Sciences) for their assistance in the process. A special mention to Francis Cook and The Canadian Field-Naturalist for assistance in pub- lication and editing, and to all members of

COSEWIC for their dedication and interest in the future of Canada's fauna and flora. We also grateful- ly acknowledge the financial and secretarial support provided through the Department of Fisheries and Oceans and the financial contribution of Fisheries and Oceans, Environment Canada, and World Wildlife Fund Canada which has permitted the pro- duction of several new reports.

Literature Cited

Campbell, R. R. 1984. Rare and Endangered fish of Canada: The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada: (COSEWIC) Fish and Marine Mammal Subcommittee. Canadian Field-Naturalist 98(1): 71-74.

Campbell, R. R. 1985. Rare and endangered fish and marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and Marine Mammals Subcommittee Reports: II. Canadian Field-Naturalist 99(3): 404-408.

The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 105

Campbell, R. R. 1987. Rare and endangered fish and Campbell, R. R. 199L Rare and endangered fish and

marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and

Marine Mammals Subcommittee Reports: III. Canadian Marine Mammals Subcommittee Reports: VII. Canadian

Field-Naturalist 101(2): 165-170. Field-Naturalist 105(2): 151-156.

Campbell, R. R. 1988. Rare and endangered fish and Cook, F. R., and D. Muir. 1984. The Committee on the

marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):

Marine Mammals Subcommittee Reports: IV. Canadian History and progress. Canadian Field-Naturalist 98(1):

Field-Naturalist 102(1): 81-86. 63-70.

Campbell, R. R. 1989. Rare and endangered fish and Reeves, R. R., and E. Mitchell. 1989. Status of White

marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and Whales {Delphinapterus leucas) in Ungava Bay and

Marine Mammals Subcommittee Reports; V. Canadian eastern Hudson Bay. Canadian Field-Naturalist 103(2):

Field-Naturalist 103(2): 147-157. 220-239.

Campbell, R. R. 1990. Rare and endangered fish and

marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and Accepted 31 May 1991 Marine Mammals Subcommittee Reports: VI. Canadian- Field Naturalist 104(1): 1-6.

Status of the Northern Brook Lamprey, Ichthyomyzon fossor, in Canada*

J. Lanteigne

58-2069 Jasmine Crescent, Gloucester, Ontario KIJ 7W2

Lanteigne, J. 1992. Status of the Nortiiern Brook Lamprey, Ichthyomyzon fossor, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 106(1): 7-13.

The Northern Brook Lamprey, Ichthyomyzon fossor, is a small, non-parasitic lamprey not particularly abundant in its endemic North American range. In Canada, it is found in the Hudson Bay drainage of Manitoba and in the Great Lakes drainage of Ontario and Quebec. These represent the northern limits of its range. It has never been the object of a directed survey in Canada; its precise status is thus unknown. The Northern Brook Lamprey is not specifically protected in Canada except for the general protection granted through the fish protection and pollution prevention sections of the Fisheries Act. The paucity of Canadian records supports a status of vulnerable for this species.

De petite taille et non parasite, la lamproie du Nord, Ichthyomyzon fossor, n'est pas tres abondante dans son aire de reparti- tion limitee a I'Amerique du Nord. Au Canada, elle est presente dans le bassin hydrographique de la bale d'Hudson, au Manitoba, et dans le bassin hydrographique des Grands Lacs, au Quebec et en Ontario. Ces coordonnees representent les limites septentrionales de son aire de repartition. Etant donne qu'elle n'a jamais fait I'objet d'un releve oriente au Canada, on n'y connait pas sa situation exacte. Elle n'est pas protegee de fagon precise dans les eaux canadiennes, sauf pour ce qui est d'une protection generate en vertu des articles sur la protection de I'habitat des poissons et de la prevention de la pollu- tion de la Loi sur les peches. Sa rare capture dans les eaux canadiennes indique que I'espece est vulnerable.

Key Words: Petromyzontidae, lampreys. Northern Brook Lamprey, lamproie du Nord, Ichthyomyzon fossor, vulnerable fishes.

The Northern Brook Lamprey, Ichthyomyzon fos- sor Reighard and Cummins 1916, is a non-parasitic lamprey endemic to North America where it is restricted to tributaries of Hudson Bay, the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River (Lanteigne 1981). The six species which comprise the genus Ichthyomyzon, probably the most primitive among the Northern Hemisphere lampreys (Hubbs and Trautman 1937), can be grouped into three species pairs each composed of a parasitic stem species and a non-parasitic satellite species. Thus, Ichthyomyzon fossor is the non-parasitic derivative of the parasitic stem species, Ichthyomyzon uniciispis. After meta- morphosis, the parasitic species feed mainly on teleost fishes for one or more years (Scott and Grossman 1973) while the non-parasitic species spawn soon after transformation. All lampreys die soon after spawning.

Description

The adult Northern Brook Lamprey can reach a total length of 161 mm [Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) 177687]; Hubbs and Trautman (1937) reported a range of 94 to 146 mm (average 119 mm) and Lanteigne (1981) gave a range of 98 to 158 mm. In the streams of Michigan's Lower Peninsula,

which yielded a more homogeneous sample, Morman (1979) found a range of 86 to 166 mm (average 115 mm). The number of trunk myomeres usually varies from 5 1 to 54 (average 52) (Lanteigne 1981) even though Hubbs and Trautman report a smaller range of 50 to 52 (average 51). Its body is definitely bicoloured: the dark slate of the back and sides contrasts with the pale grey or silvery white lower parts (Vladykov 1949). The ventral surface is somewhat tinted with orange, which is particularly noticeable in the sexually mature female where the eggs show through the body wall (Leach 1940). The lateral line organs are non-pigmented, a characteris- tic which readily separates it from its parasitic stem species, Ichthyomyzon iinicuspis, (Vladykov 1949). All the disc teeth are blunt and degenerate in keeping with its non-parasitic lifestyle which is also evident in the non-functional nature of its intestine. All the endolateral teeth, a diagnostic character, are unicus- pid (Figure 1).

Distribution

In the drainage basins of the Eastern United States (Figure 2), the Northern Brook Lamprey is found in the Western Great Lakes basin of Wisconsin and Michigan, in the Eastern Great Lakes basin of

•^Report accepted by COSEWIC and Vulnerable Status assigned 9 April 1991.

7

The Canadian Field-Naturalist

Vol. 106

Figure 1. Ichthyomyzon fossoi . Icmale, 13(J mm TL: Birch River, upstream of Prawda, Manitoba; May 13, 1977; J. Jyrkkanen; ROM 34264. Note blunt, degenerate and unicuspid disc teeth.

Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania (not present in Lake Ontario), in the Ohio basin of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky and in the Lower Missouri basin of Missouri where a disjunct population is found in the Ozark Uplands (Figure 3) [Pflieger 1971].

In Canada (Figure 4), the Northern Brook Lamprey occurs in the Great Lakes basin from Lake Superior to Lake Erie but appears to be absent in the Lake Ontario drainage (Scott and Grossman 1973) even though one transformed individual was cap- tured in Tosorontio Greek (49°09'N, 79°58'W) in 1974 (ROM 30543). It has been captured in the Ottawa River at Ottawa (45°28'N, 75°37'W) [Canadian Museum of Nature (NMG) 82-0319] and it occurs in the St. Lawrence River down to the Nicolet River (Vladykov 1952). Its range in Canada has recently been extended further west to the Nelson River drainage of Manitoba (Jyrkkanen and Wright 1979) where it has been captured in the Whitemouth River (50°00'N, 96°00'W) and one of its tributaries, the Birch River (49°39'N, 95°47'W). This distribution represents the northern limits of the range of the Northern Brook Lamprey in North America.

Protection

The Northern Brook Lamprey is not listed as endangered, threatened or of concern in North America (Williams et al. 1989). In Canada, the species is not the object of any specific legal protec- tion other than the general protection granted under habitat and pollution prevention sections of the Federal Fisheries Act. In Manitoba protection can be afforded through the provincial Endangered Species Act by regulation.

Population Sizes and Trends

No population estimates are available. In the St. Lawrence drainage of Ouebec, Vladykov (1952) captured 63 adults and 849 ammocoetes between September 1946 and August 1951. The range exten- sion of the species to Manitoba concerned 14 adult specimens (Jyrkkanen and Wright 1979). Collection records from the Royal Ontario Museum and the Canadian Museum of Nature reveal the paucity of specimens from the Great Lakes drainage as well as from other Canadian localities. It was formerly pre- sent in the Lake Ontario watershed but is now absent, or considered to be extremely rare. It is pos- sibly present in a few scattered tributary creeks (Grossman and van Meter 1979) as in Tosorontio Greek. There is no indication that the species is in

Figure 2. Principal drainage basins of the Eastern United States where the genus Ichthyomyzon is found.

1992

Lanteigne: Status of the Northern Brook Lamprey

Figure 3. Distributional records of Ichthyomyzon fossor in Eastern United States.

danger of extinction but the state of our knowledge is such that no predictions can be made. The better fish sampling methods used in the last two or three decades, as well as the major research effort expand- ed in the Great Lakes in the wake of the sea lamprey invasion, may be in part responsible for the greater number of endemic lampreys appearing in fish col- lections. This increase should, therefore, not be viewed as a real increase in abundance.

Habitat

The ammocoetes of the Northern Brook Lamprey require a fairly soft bottom in which to make their burrows; as a rule, they are not found in firm sand or in the extremely soft mud of backwaters (Churchill 1947). In a given area with suitable bottom, they are most numerous in water 15 to 61 cm deep, amongst the vegetation. Maximum silt content and total volatile organic content of occupied sediments in an Ohio creek were 77% and 65%, respectively (Anderson and White 1988). Small ammocoetes were less tolerant of silt than large ones. The highest density of ammocoetes are usually found in the warmer sections of streams and tributaries receiving large surface flow of warm water from lakes, swamps and marshes (Morman 1979).

In Quebec, adult Northern Brook Lampreys are found in brooks tributary to small rivers. In the Yamaska River, where it was most abundant at St. Cesaire where the river spans from 30 to 130 m, the current was moderate, the water was turbid and the banks were composed of clay (Vladykov 1952). In the Lake Superior watershed, Ichthyomyzon fossor was most common in medium-to-large streams with average summer flows of 0.3 to 28.3 cubic meters per second (Schuldt and Goold 1980). It was also common in several turbid streams. Along the west- ern half of the United States shoreline, the preferred streams were generally warmer than eastern streams. In the lower peninsula of Michigan, the Northern Brook Lamprey was rarely found in small stream systems; it was most frequently collected in small, isolated segments of moderate-sized to large streams characterized by summer low flows (Morman 1979). It typically lived in the warmer, less rapid lower reaches of streams and tributaries that received large surface flow of warm water from lakes, swamps or marshes. It was also less commonly found in cold- water environments where mean daily temperatures during mid-June to August ranged from 14° to 20°C. In Manitoba, Ichthyomyzon fossor has been collected in the Birch River, a tributary of the Winnipeg River (Jyrkkanen and Wright 1979). The Birch River is a small river with a maximum flow of 5.7 to 8.5 cubic meters per second (cm/s) and a low flow of less than 0.15 cm/s. The substrate is highly varied with silts and sediments in the quieter reaches of the stream, gravel and cobble riffles and several small water- falls.

In the Yamaska River of Quebec, the Northern Brook Lamprey spawned in May when the water temperature ranged from 12.8° to 17.2°C. Spawning activity peaked at water temperatures of 13.3° to 15.6°C (Vladykov 1949). In Michigan, spawning activities were observed from 23 May to 27 May and were most vigorous at water temperatures ranging from 20° to 22°C; spawning seldom took place at water temperatures inferior to 18°C (Reighard and Cummins 1916). All the spawners were observed on a bottom of coarse gravel and shingle which con- tained stones from 2.5 to 15.2 cm in diameter, and in water from 20.3 to 45.7 cm deep. At that point, the stream was less than 10 m wide with a strong current (Reighard and Cummins 1916).

General Biology

Reproductive Capability

Like all lampreys, the Northern Brook Lamprey breeds only once. According to Leach (1940), the ammocoete period lasts six years and is followed by a short transformation period of two or three months and an immature adult period of a semi-sedentary nature. The latter lasts until mid-February. The active early adult period follows and leads to sexual

10

The Canadian Field-Naturalist

Vol. 106

Figure 4. Distribution records of Ichthyomyzon fossor in Canada.

maturity around mid-May. The post-spawning period probably lasts only a few days, after which all spawners die. Since degeneration of the alimentary canal occurs at the beginning of transformation, there is a period of eight or nine months during which no food is taken (Churchill 1947).

Three physical factors in streams are essential for successful spawning: first, for nest building, a suit- able substrate of gravel is required that includes at least a small amount of silt-free sand or other fine material to which the eggs can adhere, thereby increasing the probability of their retention in the nest. Second, a current must be flowing uni-direc- tionally over the nest. Third, the water temperatures must be suitable.

In Manitoba, fourteen mature individuals were cap- tured in the Birch River in mid-May 1977 (Jyrkkanen and Wright 1977). Of these, 10 were males and four were females. They were assumed to be spawning at the time of collection. No details on the reproductive behavior were reported. Two more sexually mature individuals, a male and a female whose eggs were free in the body cavity, were captured in the Whitemouth River (into which the Birch River empties) in mid- July 1977 (Lanteigne 1981). For two nests in which sex ratio was determined in a Michigan river, 11 males and two females were in one and three males and one female in the other (Morman 1979). In a trib- utary of southern Lake Superior, Purvis (1970) noted that 97% of the metamorphosed specimens collected in August were males and in June, 75% of the spawn- ers were also males.

In a Michigan river, Ichthyomyzon fossor was observed in seven nests on 13 June when water tem- peratures ranged from 16.5° to 20.5°C (daily mean

18°C) [Morman 1979]. Spawning occurred in a shal- low, pool-riffle, high-gradient stretch of the stream. Nests were inconspicuously located in interstices beneath large stones (18 to 36 cm in diameter) and were poorly defined. Spawners were unobtrusive as had been observed by Reighard and Cummins (1916).

The number of eggs laid is roughly in proportion to the size of the female. The actual fecundity of nine Ichthyomyzon fossor females from Quebec (128 to 150 mm TL) averaged 1524 eggs (range 1115 to 1979 eggs) (Vladykov 1951) whose average diame- ter was 1.01 mm. Leach (1940) recorded 780 eggs in a 92 mm TL ripe female. The eggs are demersal (Fuiman 1982) and seem to develop in an extremely adhesive glue-like mass under artificial conditions (Leach 1940) where the incubation period lasted 9 days at 18°C (Smith et al. 1968).

After fertilization, the eggs become covered by the substrate in and around the nests (Hardisty and Potter 1971). After hatching, the proammocoetes emerge from the substrate and drift downstream where they burrow into silt beds, especially along protected banks (Piavis 1971).

Behavior/Adaptability

The young larvae settle down into the soft bottom of slowly flowing waters where they are carried by the current. According to Sawyer (1959), the mouth is directed towards the current, with the upper sec- tion of the burrow sloping obliquely towards the mud surface. For several years, they lie concealed in the silt deposits, feeding on desmids, diatoms and protozoans (Scott and Crossman 1973) strained from the water. Since their burrows at the substrate sur-

1992

Lanteigne; Status of the Northern Brook Lamprey

11

face are sometimes closed off, food may be drawn from the sediments, depending on environmental conditions and activity of the ammocoetes (Moore and Mallatt 1980). In fact, detritus is frequently reported in the gut contents of all species of lam- preys, although its relative abundance may vary with season and locality (Hardisty and Potter 1971).

Species Movement

It appears that ammocoete movement differs between streams owing probably to variations in such conditions as flow and bottom stability, current velocity, flooding and ammocoete density in relation to preferred habitat (Morman et al. 1980). Hardisty and Potter (1971) suggested that in some streams, particularly those with low gradients, stable flows and suitable habitats, the downstream migration of lamprey larvae is minimal. It appeared to Leach (1940) that ammocoetes moved only when the sub- strate was disturbed or when food was in short sup- ply. Downstream migration takes place primarily at night; thus, predation by diurnal birds and mammals is minimal.

Limiting Factors

Lowering of water levels is probably a significant ammocoete mortality factor (Scott and Grossman 1973). Such is the case in the Yamaska River, where severe low water levels are regularly recorded in summer; these are generally followed by degradation of the aquatic environment (Mongeau et al. 1988). Siltation and pollution are a threat to successful spawning which requires a suitable substrate of clear gravel (Bailey 1959; Starrett et al. 1960). General deterioration in river habitat may reduce the avail- able food supply of larvae and increasing levels of toxic chemicals may cause direct mortality.

Richards (1976) demonstrated a reduction in num- bers of Ichthyomyzon fossor larvae and other warm- water fishes in a Michigan basin concurrent with the trend toward an increase in the relative abundance of coldwater species between the 1920s and 1972; he hypothesized that these changes were caused by a decrease in average water temperatures after that particular Michigan river basin was reforested and low-head impoundments were removed.

It is assumed that larval lampreys are largely immune from predation because of their burrowing sedentary habits (Churchill 1947; Hardisty and Potter 1971). However, evidence that ammocoetes are readily eaten by predatory fish is found in their formerly common and widespread use as bait (Vladykov 1949; Scott and Grossman 1973). In the course of field work carried out in the Ottawa River at Ottawa in the spring of 1979 and 1980, I observed unidentified predatory fishes capture ammocoetes swimming at the surface away from the electrical field generated by an electroshocker.

Lampreys on nests are probably most vulnerable to predators because they are more exposed in rela- tively shallow water and are not cautious. Therefore, in streams with few spawners, predators could reduce or prevent successful spawning (Morman et al. 1979).

Starting in 1958, Sea Lamprey {Petromyzon mari- nus) control programs in the upper three Great Lakes - Huron, Michigan and Superior - were carried out in Canadian